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Home Loan Prepayment, Charges & RBI Guidline

Prepayment-home-loan

All borrowers are, ironically, averse to being debt ridden. You would always want to repay your loan at the earliest and prepayment allows you to do just that. Prepayment is a facility that helps you repay your housing loan (in part or full) if you have surplus funds before the completion of your loan tenure. This reduces the outstanding principal owed, and in turn reduces your EMIs or the remaining loan tenure.

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Home Loan Prepayment Calculator

RBI allows banks to calculate prepayment charges only on the outstanding loan amount. Typically, the longer you’ve had your loan, the lesser will be your outstanding loan, and the smaller your penalty will be. As discussed above, floating rate home loans taken by individuals are exempt from prepayment fees. For others, banks charge a pre-payment penalty of 2-3% on the outstanding loan amount at the time of prepayment.

A Home Loan Prepayment Calculator helps to know the impact of partial payment of your home loan. Doing a prepayment or part-prepayment of your home loan will result in great savings over a long period of time and a reduction in your existing housing loan tenure and EMI. When you make a home loan repayment, you get two options:

  • To reduce the EMI amount and keep the tenure same
  • To reduce the tenure and keep the EMI same

Click Here to Know More About Home Loan Schemes

How to use the Home Loan Prepayment Calculator?

The home loan prepayment calculator is very simple to use. All you need to do is simply enter your loan details and then enter the loan amount you are willing to pre-pay. Enter the below- mentioned values to calculate your savings using a home loan prepayment calculator:

  • Loan Amount
  • Tenure (In months)
  • Rate of Interest
  • The amount of part prepayment you wish to pay

After entering the above-mentioned details, you will get 2 results:

  • EMI Saved: You can check the reduction in your EMI and monthly savings after doing partial pre-payment.
  • Tenure Saved: You can check the reduction in your EMI and monthly savings after doing partial pre-payment.

What is a Home Loan Prepayment?

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Home Loan Pre Payment means early loan repayment in case of surplus cash lying idle with you. Prepayment basically means paying your loan’s EMI installment before its due date. A home loan prepayment is calculated making use of prepayment calculator which helps you to gauge the impact of a partial payment of your home loan. A partial prepayment lets you reduce the tenure of your existing home loan, EMI or both as per your financial requirements. It will also provide you with an amortization table to have a clear and better understanding of the savings you will have. Before you make a pre-payment, you should know that the pre-payment amount must be at least three times your existing home loan EMI.

What are Home Loan Prepayment Charges?

A prepayment penalty is a fee or charges that you have to pay to the bank if you decide to repay a loan before the end of its term. As a borrower, you may decide to close your loan before time to reduce your borrowings and monthly interest burden. You may decide to repay the loan from your own savings or by transferring your loan to another bank to get lower interest rates.

Why do lenders charge Prepayment Fees on Home Loan?

It may sound absurd, but why do we have to pay a penalty on making our loan repayments before time? Lenders charge fees on early repayment of loans because some loans are designed to last a certain number of years and earn interest for the bank for that tenure such as a 30-year home loan. If you decide to close the loan before that certain time period, the bank may have to bear a loss especially if the loan is a fixed rate loan and interest rates are declining at the time of loan pre-closure. Banks charge prepayment penalty to safeguard themselves from any potential loss in a situation of loan prepayment during the loan tenure and also, to deter a customer from transferring their loan to another bank. Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and National Housing Bank (NHB) has over the past few years come out with prepayment guidelines to safeguard the interest of borrowers and allow them to prepay their housing loans.

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Home Loan Prepayment Rules

RBI, in its circular “Levy of foreclosure charges/ pre-payment penalty on Floating Rate Loans”, released in 2014, issued the following prepayment rules for banks. NHB has come out with similar home loan prepayment rules for Housing Finance Companies.

Banks and HFCs are not allowed to charge prepayment fees in the following cases:
  • Floating Rate Home Loan is taken by individuals: As per the guidelines, Banks and HFCs are not allowed to charge prepayment charges on floating rate home loans taken by individuals, either on part prepayment or full prepayment.
  • Fixed Rate Home Loan from HFCs, provided the prepayment is from own sources: Further, HFCs are not allowed to charge prepayment penalty on fixed rate home loan taken by individuals, if the borrower makes the repayment from his own sources and not by borrowing from another bank or finance company.
  • Dual Rate Home Loan from Banks or HFCs: If the prepayment is done when the loan has shifted to variable rate scheme and has become a floating rate loan.

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Prepayment Charges

Type of BorrowerFixed RatesFloating Rates
IndividualsLoan from Bank
Loan from HFCs

✕ if paid through own sources

✓ if borrowed from other sources including banks or HFCs

Non IndividualsLoan from Bank
Loan from HFCs

✓ – Prepayment charges are allowed as per loan agreement

✕ – Prepayment charges are not allowed

However, the banks and HFCs can levy prepayment fees in the following cases:

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  • Home Loan is taken by non-individuals: Loan in which company, firm, etc is a borrower or co-borrower, are not exempt from foreclosure charges or prepayment penalties, irrespective of whether the home loan is a floating rate loan, fixed-rate loan or a dual-rate loan. Banks can levy a prepayment penalty as included in the loan agreement.
  • Fixed-Rate Home Loans taken from banks: Banks are allowed to charge a prepayment penalty on fixed-rate home loans. The penalty charge will be as per what is included in the signed loan agreement between the bank and the borrower at the time of loan sanction.
  • Fixed-Rate Home Loans taken from HFCs: HFCs are allowed to charge a prepayment penalty on fixed-rate home loans, only if the borrower is repaying the loan by borrowing from another bank or HFC. The HFC cannot charge any prepayment fees if the borrower repays the loan from his own sources.
  • Dual Rate Home Loans by individuals: Dual Rate Home Loan Schemes are special schemes in which the interest rate on the loan is fixed for the first few years and then becomes variable. In dual-rate schemes, banks are allowed to charge a prepayment penalty if the loan is repaid during the period when it is a fixed-rate loan. However, once the loan becomes a floating rate loan, the banks are not allowed to charge any prepayment penalty.

Important Tip

Check the prepayment charges contained in the loan agreement schedule carefully and ensure that these are in line with prepayment rules of RBI, market practice and also what you may have been verbally told by the sales person. These charges would act as a deterrent to your refinancing this loan with another lender in case your existing bank charges you higher than market rates or revises rates upwards beyond market movement.

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